Cell experimental studies into the effects of particles

In order to model the mode of action of inflammatory particles, the Particle-Induced Cell Migration Assay (PICMA) was developed at the IPA. The test displays acute inflammatory particle effects with high differentiation, sensitivity and reproducibility, and permits classification of particles into those without effect, with medium and with strong effect.

Examination of further particles and comparison with animal and human data will be used to test the transferability of the PICMA results. Furthermore, parameters used as measures of inflammatory processes in animal or human studies can be confirmed experimentally by means of PICMA. Early non-toxic effects, indicating particle effects which in the case of chronic exposure may result in serious diseases, can be identified by means of this new method.


Loza K, Schremmer I, Bünger J, Westphal GA, Köller M, Epple M, Sengstock C. Barium sulfate micro- and nanoparticles as bioinert reference material in particle toxicology. Nanotoxicology Nanotoxicology. 2016; 10:1492-1502

Schremmer I, Brik A, Weber DG, Rosenkranz N, Rostek A, Loza K, Brüning T, Johnen G, Epple M, Bünger J, Westphal GA. Kinetics of chemotaxis; cytokine; and chemokine release of NR8383 macrophages after exposure to inflammatory and inert granular insoluble particles. Toxicol Lett 2016; 263: 68-75

Westphal GA, Schremmer I, Rostek A, Loza K, Rosenkranz N, Brüning T, Epple M, Bünger J. Particle-induced cell migration assay (PICMA): a new in vitro assay for inflammatory particle effects based on permanent cell lines Toxicol in Vitro 2015; 29: 997-1005